THE NEW KINGDOM, OR THE EGYPTIAN EMPIRE
(1567-1085) consisted of the 18-20 dynasties, it is sometimes known as the Egyptian Empire, it began with the expulsion of the Hyksos rulers from the eastern delta, where they had their capital Avaris this was achieved by the native Theban rulers of the 17 dynasty (1650-1567) who had been governing during the second intermediate period in a subordinate capacity.
Not only were the Hyksos defeated in Egypt but they were pursued into Asia and totally destroyed.
The 18 Dynasty (1567-1320 BC) produced a number of very able rulers who reasserted Egyptian control over the whole country and in western Asia to the Euphrates and Sinto the Sudan. Know as Kush, as far as the fourth cataract Kush was important for its supply copper and stone .
(1503) B-C, Who reigned first as a regent queen and then as a king in her own right, the Egyptian artistic revival began. Her architect, Senenmut, built her a splendid mortuary temple at Thebes and this was followed by a series of temple and tombs built by the reigning kings. Her nephew, Thutmose III
Was the greatest conqueror that Egypt was to produce.
UNDER AMENHOTEP III
(1417) B-C, the Empire reached its zenith, and though he did not conduct any active campaigns he was a great hunter an builder, the country was settled and fairly prosperous that he was able to devote his attention to building the temple at Luxor and a vast mortuary temple , now destroy save for the colossi of Memnon .
(1379) who took the name Akhenaton, his city Akhetaton “the horizon of the Aton” here he devoted him self to the worship of the Aton, a form of sun god shown as a disk with the rays ending its hands. This was not a new deity but had been know from the old kingdom, although not as a royal god. While Akhenaton and wife Nefertiti stayed at Akhetaton, the empire declined. Towards the end of his reign, Akhenaton took his brother Smenkhkare as co-regent and sent him to Thebes from Akhetaton , but he did not live more than a year or two . Akhenaton died leaving Tutankhamen, son of Amenhotep III and queen Tiy to assume the throne.
The boy king reigned for about 10 years and died, leaving in his tomb an unsurpassed treasure, the last king of the dynasty, Horemheb , originally a general command at Memphis , was not a royal blood , although he may have married one of the royal princess to legitimize his position he did much to restore Egypt .
THE 19 DYNASTY
(1320-1200 B-C) was also not of royal blood, its founders had been generals under the last rulers of the 18 dynasty. Ramesses I, the first king was already elderly when became to the throne and only reigned for two years.
His son Seti I (1318) B-C was in the prime of life he restored Egypt’s position by campaigns in western Asia and by a building.
His son Ramesses II 1304 B-C, who came to the throne after a co-regency with his father, was also a great builder, also he carried out further campaigns in western Asia, there are varying accounts of the battle of kadesh , which Ramesses II fought against the Hittites , and announced as a great victory .The Hittites claimed success and the battle , in which Ramesses II showed consider able bravery but not much judgment, was probably drawn .
The Hittites problem was not settled until Ramesses II married one of the Hittite princesses and concluded a peace treaty 21 years later.
Ramesses II was followed by Merneptah (1236 B-C) one of his many sons, a man already in middle age.
The only memorable king of which was the second ruler of the dynasty, RamessesIII(1198) B-C .
The later kings of the 20 dynasty all, called Ramesses Two wards the end the power of king was shared by the priests of Amun .
The late dynastic periods (1085-332) B-C sometimes called the third intermediate period was, on the whole, a period of decline, with occasional flashes of energy, as in the 22 dynasty (945B-C-715) these later rulers controlled Egypt mainly from delta where the capital was moved from one city to another, while the high priests, the later priests of Amun, usually of the royal family controlled upper Egypt.
Under 25 dynasty (747B-C 656) Egypt was invaded by Assyrians and both the Thebes and Memphis were sacked, there was slight revival in the 26 dynasty (664-525B-C) but more on the artistic than on the political side.
Large foreign colonies developed and Egypt for the first time opened its borders to the Greeks who settled in the delta, many Greeks mercenaries joined the Egyptian army.
Nearly a century later Psmatic III (526 B-C) the last king of the dynasty, was defeated by the Persians at Pelusium .
Memphis and the whole Egypt became a Persian satraps the 27 dynasty (525-44B-C) was composed of Persian, not native ruler sand, although there was a brief attempt at rebellion in the 29/30 dynasties (393-343B-C).
Egypt really remained under effective Persian control until the arrival of alexander in 332 B-C.
THE GREEK PERIOD- PTOLEMAIC DYNASTY
The Ptolemies (332-30 B-C) after defeating the Persians, Alexander the great entered Egypt late in 332 B-C and appointed Ptolemy soter , one of his Macedonian generals , as satrap one of the most important decisions taken by Alexander was the foundation of the new capital named , after himself , Alexandria This became a great Hellenistic city with a good port and the hub of Greek influence in Egypt.It developed as a center of learning with a museum and library unequalled in the Ancient world.
Ptolemy governed until the death of Alexander nine years later, at first, also deputized for Philip Arrhideous and Alexander IV. Subsequently he assumed the crown and founded the Ptolemaic dynasty, which ruled Egypt for 300 years until it was conquered by the Romans.
Throughout this period they did restoring and rebuilding earlier Egyptian temples in the Pharaonic style, some of these, like Dandaratemple , Philae temple , Edfu temple , are still excellently preserved .
The Ptolemies also developed the Fayyum region, reclaiming the land and reorganizing the crop rotation.
The Greek element adopted the worship of Egyptian Gods, equating them with their Greek pantheon thus. Zeus became Amun ,Hathor became Aphrodite .
Many of late temples were, like those of Greece, places of healing , as at kom ombo and Dandara where Sanatona were erected in the grounds of the temples , here pilgrims and sick would stay .
The Ptolemies were, on the whole, excellent administrators.
Cleopatra (51-30B-C), the defeat of Antony at Actium 30 B-C and Octavian’s pursuit of him to Egypt finally put an end to Egypt’s position as a sovereign state.
THE ROMAN PERIOD
The Roman period 30B-C AD 337 lasted about 300 years. The first 2 centuries of Roman rule was peaceful. Greek remained the administrative language and Ptolemaic administration had been so efficient that the roman shad to do little to alter it.
In the reign of Tarjan 98 AD, the Red Sea canal was recut, and the trade routes to India were reopened and Egypt began a good export and jewelry.
By the 3rd Cinerary AD the economic decline of the roman world caused further misery in Egypt.
The Roman emperors did not built in Egypt as the Ptolemies had , some works at Philae temple , Dandara Temple , Esna temple , they also adopted many of the Egyptian cults which spread out around the Empire . That of Goddess lsis , example , had temples at Roma , London and throughout Europe .
Under Diocletian 284, such was the persecution of the Christians in Egypt that the Copts date their era, known as the martyr’s calendar, from his reign.
Responsibility for Egypt passed to Constantinople which was too distant and not sufficiently powerful to govern satisfactorily.
From the west and North Africans attacked across the desert, from the south the Nubians.